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Opium Wars Background causes summary


The background to the Opium War

In the nineteenth century, British power had taken root in India. As a result of the Industrial Revolution, Britain developed rapidly in the field of industry. Capital raised from India enriches their country. With the demise of the textile industry in Bengal and the whole of India, the textile industry in places like Manchester continued to grow rapidly. Britain needed new markets for these surplus textiles and industrial products. 

China, on the other hand, has always been financially self-sufficient. China did not have a tradition in foreign trade. Except for some time, the emperors of China did not control trade. The people of the coastal areas of China were employed in foreign trade because the region was backward in agriculture due to infertility, so they were forced to engage in trade for subsistence. Occasionally the emperors banned foreign trade. But to meet the lack of money and silver and the lack of money from the war treasury, he was forced to reopen the doors of trade. Although trade regulators were appointed at ports to control trade and collect tariffs, the expansion of foreign trade was not possible due to a lack of favorable organization for expansion of trade, financial resources such as banks, etc. Moreover, although the impetus of the monarchy was not behind them, the emperors at times in time showed enthusiasm in levying duties, and often these duties were excessive. Moreover, there was no banking system, so it was difficult to invest in trade. 

The British merchants were lucky in this way. Behind their trade organization was the strong support of the monarchy and financial institutions. The advance of British trade for this protection became irresistible. Moreover, as a result of the Industrial Revolution, the countries of Britain and Europe became capitalist countries one by one. As a result of this development, production has increased. So the search for markets to sell their goods came to the East and colonized by force of arms. Although the British could not make China their colony, their greedy view of this huge market was forbidden. For many centuries, Chinese silk, tea leaves, and porcelain were exported to Europe, resulting in huge amounts of silver flowing to China. In order to bridge the trade gap between Britain and other European countries, China has been using large quantities of opium day after day. Secretly started supplying. Just as the poison of death was entering the human body and destroying it in one day, an unprecedented amount of silver began to flow out of China. Thus the lack of money in the treasury became apparent. Rabindranath Tagore described the economic trade as follows: "An entire nation was forcibly poisoned by the greed of money; such a heinous swindle has never been heard of. China wept and said," I will not eat Ahifen. " Ahifen was thrust into his mouth with a Chinese handcuff; Dia said, "Pay the price of the Ahifen you eat." "The business of death in China", India is the eldest, 1288 

The First Opium War

As a result of such disbursements, China's economic situation deteriorated until 1834, when the patriotic ruling class intellectuals opposed it. When the dispute escalated, Emperor Lin Tshshu of China sent a patriotic high official in 1839 as a commissioner to Canton (now Guangzhou) to stop this illegal trade. Lin destroyed all ships of opium in the port and completely stopped trade with the British and expelled all the employees of the East India Company from China. Finally, in 1840, China's war with the British was fought. 

The amount of war is the - Nanking Treaty 

The outcome of the war was known. The common people spontaneously fought against this heinous conspiracy of the foreigners, but the people's uprising shocked the Chinese monarchy. The declining Chinese Empire (1644-1911) quickly surrendered to the British. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking was signed with Britain. Proud of China's sovereign power, five ports, such as the Canton of China, was opened to English merchants. Hong Kong was won by the British, and 21 million was recovered from China as compensation. Although opium was considered an illicit commodity, the British opium trade vessels were so well-equipped that the weak Chinese army could not approach them. Therefore, in front of the eyes of China, these foreigners started doing business openly.

Other countries: Unequal treaty

Britain's visit forced the United States and France to conclude a similar free trade agreement with China. These treaties are known as "unequal treaties". This undermined China's sovereignty. The free flow of foreign goods disrupted China's feudal economy, leading to semi-colonial and semi-feudalism.

Taiping Rebellion:

After the Opium War, the Chinese government had to pay exorbitant sums to compensate foreigners. To raise this money, the government continues to collect various types of revenue and business fees. The burden of this money fell on the people. As a result of the heavy-duty, the people became restless. The oppressed masses and peasants gradually organized and declared rebellion. This uprising in 1851 took the form of a violent revolt. The revolt was led by a peasant leader named Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864). He founded an independent state called the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping Thienkud, centered in the southeastern province of Guangxi. The state soon expanded with the overwhelming support of the disgruntled masses, and in 1853 established its capital at Nanking, the capital of southern China. The state-owned more than 600 cities in 17 provinces of China. Taiping authorities reformed the land and distributed the land equally among the farmers. The principle of equality between men and women was adopted and the ancient conservative Confucian ideology was harshly criticized.

The Second Opium War

When the Qing Dynasty was defeated by successive invasions by the Thiefing government, Britain and France took advantage of this miserable situation to start the Second Opium War (1756-58) and claim many more privileges and privileges from the staggering Qing emperor. On this occasion, Russia usurped the Heilongjiang territory and other privileges of northeastern China. These powers saw the existence of the Thaifing government as a threat not only to the Chinese emperor but also to foreign powers, and in 184 all foreign powers joined forces with the Qing army to relieve the emerging Thaifing kingdom.

After 180 AD, the nature of capitalism changed to imperialism, free competitive trade became the prerogative of monopoly traders. The hustle and bustle among the capitalists began to dominate the Chinese market.

Treaty of Shimonoseki

According to the Shimonoseki agreement, parts of the above-occupied territories, such as Taiwan, etc., went to Japan, Japan received 20 crore ounces of silver as compensation, and the right to open a trading factory. Thus the imperialists are engaged in a conspiracy to divide the territory of China among themselves.

Once prosperous China became a vassal of foreigners, gradually becoming a financially poor country, China's agriculture and industry were destroyed. The raw materials of foreign factories become the supplier of the country and the market for the manufactured goods. 

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